2.5 C++构造函数的参数初始化表

构造函数是一种特殊的成员函数,在创建对象时自动执行,主要用来进行初始化工作,例如对private属性的成员变量赋值。
对成员变量的初始化,除了在构造函数的函数体中-赋值,还可以采用参数初始化表。
例如:

%e3%82%ad%e3%83%a3%e3%83%97%e3%83%81%e3%83%a318

本例所示,在定义带参构造函数 Student(char *name1, int age1, float score1) 时,不再是在函数体中对成员变量一一赋值,其函数体为空。在函数首部与函数体之间增添了一个冒并加上 name(name1), age(age1), score(score1) 语句,这个语句的意思相当于函数体内部的 name = name1; age = age1; score = score1; 语句。
这样做对于三个成员变量的类来说可能看不出什么优势,但是当成员变量非常多的时候,通过参数初始化列表进行赋值的优势就显现出来了,如此写法简洁明了。

参数初始化表还有一个很重要的作用,那就是为 const 成员变量初始化。例如:
1. class Array{
2. public:
3. Array(){
4. length = 0; //compile error
5. num = NULL;
6. };
7. private:
8. const int length;
9. int * num;
10. };
在本例中Array类声明了两个成员变量,length 和 num 指针,需要注意的是 length 加了 const 关键字修饰。此时默认构造函数再为 length 赋值为 0,这是无法通过编译的。

初始化const成员变量的唯一方法只有利用参数初始化表。例如:
1. class Array{
2. public:
3. Array(): length(0){
4. num = NULL;
5. };
6. private:
7. const int length;
8. int * num;
9. };
需要注意的是:参数初始化顺序与初始化表列出的变量的顺序无关,参数初始化顺序只与成员变量在类中声明的顺序有关。

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